The tomato is a plant of the Solanaceae family, originally from the American continent and very well known around the world. It is one of the most practiced crops in all the gardens in the world, in this cultivation guide we explain how to grow your tomatoes and grow them healthy so that you have lots of delicious tomatoes.
When to sow the Tomatoes?
Tomatoes are plants that need a lot of heat and light, so their best season for growing in free air is the hottest months of the summer. The best months to grow tomatoes in the northern hemisphere are from March to June. You could see Zimbra’s calendar.
Sowing the tomato in the garden must be done when the climatological conditions ensure temperature conditions that are between 20 and 30 degrees centigrade during the day and 15 to 17 degrees centigrade at night. If the temperature for tomato cultivation exceeds 30 degrees, it starts to affect its fructification and if the temperature is lower than 12 degrees, it stops the plant’s development. That’s why many farmers start the sowing in greenhouses or in protected places and then move the plants to the definitive place.
How to make the seed
Seedyards are usually delayed a few months before the growing season of the tomatoes, sowings are made in the early spring months when the winter falls behind and the temperatures rise, ensuring that when it arrives in good time we have the plants grown. and prepared to pass through the garden. I tell you the step by step of the tomato seed:
- Availability of some seeds of quality and a variety that adapts to our climate
- Buying or getting a land for sowing with a large amount of nutrients
- Get seeds with large alveoli that ensure better seedling growth
- Place the soil in the seedlings without pressing it too much, then place 2 – 3 seedlings per alveolus at no
- more than 1cm in depth. Put a little bit of land on top.
- It is recommended to add a little vermiculite on top to prevent the appearance of fungi.
- Gives a water supply with a tool that does not have much flow so that the seeds do not unravel. If necessary,
- use a bottle with water taps.
- Leave the seed in a warm place and your seeds will germinate in 10 days.
- After 20 days, you can clear and leave only one plant per alveolus so that it grows well
- After 30 days, you can re-pick the plant in a mallet with more soil and nutrients, so the subsequent transplant will be safer.
The transplant must be carried out 40-50 days after the tomato harvest. When extracting the plants, you must be very careful not to damage the roots. It is recommended in addition to carrying out a previous irrigation for this operation. This operation is recommended to be carried out at dusk and watering immediately after finishing the same so that the daytime heat affects it.
Buy seed and other ways to get tomato plants
Many farmers in urban gardens do not have enough time to carry out the seedlings and go to the plant nurseries to buy the seedlings directly. Going to a vivarium guarantees you a diversity of plants and you should also ask sellers which varieties are the best for your area. Another very curious option is the reproduction by forgetting the tomato plant, it is about using the branches of the pruning to root and remove new plants. For them, you only have to leave the branches that you prune in 10 days to have roots in clean water. After planting it on a maceta and in the garden.
Planting tomatoes in the urban or maceta garden
The tomato is a crop that can be planted perfectly in your urban garden, in a cajón, on a terrace or even in a mallet. You just have to know that it is a plant that needs lots of nutrients and abundant watering
Caring for tomato plants
Tomato cultivation has a complex cycle and very complete nutritional characteristics. Abundant direct sun and lots of irrigation. If there is too much shade, this has a negative impact on the processes of flowering, fertilization, as well as its vegetative development. Sowing tomatoes requires that these requirements are appropriate to combat the onslaught of pests and diseases. For this reason, tomato cultivation should definitely be carried out in warm areas.
Pruning of tomato and entotorado
When there is a tomato sowing, it is necessary to carry out the tutoring of the forests, which consists of guiding the main stem of the plant vertically, through a support that can be a foot or a cane held with a cuerda or hug. When it’s time to do the tomato filling, you have to have the account:
Don’t press too hard, leave it alone because you can strangle the branch when you grow up
Do not produce legit a la rama because they can be a source of infections
Intends to use non-abrasive materials such as race cuerda or special abrazaderas
Also, during tomato cultivation it is important to constantly clean and prune the plant. This is carried out to favor the air reaction by removing the viejas and/or the sick and the sprouts or suckers, which also improves the production of the fruits to contribute more strength. As the plant grows its fruits, it will not be possible to keep it down today that les quiten strength.
To carry out the pruning operation of the chupones, you must fix the shoots that sell between the days and the stalk and eliminate them to leave between one and three main branches.
This crop requires a large amount of irrigation and has at least three weekly irrigations in the hottest season. You should never leave the soil soaked and you should always be careful not to wet the days because it can favor the appearance of mushrooms. Excessive watering when the plant bears fruits can cause the fruits to be damaged and to lose, this happens because the plant will take more water than it needs.
Allowances and fertilizers When to pay the tomato?
There are essential subscribers, the first one will be carried out before the final transfer of the tomato in the garden. For it, we will prepare the ground with a large contribution of lombriz humus or organic material and we will leave the spongy and spongy ground. After that, it is recommended to make an allowance at least when the plants begin to bloom. Bear in mind that tomato plants are very voracious plants with nutrients and if they grow in macetas, you will need to continuously add fertilizers.
The most important nutrients for tomatoes are:
- Nitrogen. It is necessary for the vegetative growth of the plant, essential throughout the cultivation. The
- deficit of this nutrient is observed when the days turn yellow. It can be solved by adding lombriz humus or guano.
- Phosphor. Its main demand takes place in the early stages of plant development, to ensure good flowering.
- Potassium. It is necessary for the formation and growth of the fruits. You can add potassium with plantain infusions.
- Calcium. It manifests itself mainly with the black spot of the tomato, you can solve it with the contribution of crushed huevo cascara or diatomaceous earth.
Plagues and Diseases
Tomatoes are the most delicate crops at the time of the plague, some insects and fungi are their worst enemies I’m sure you are wondering that when the mildew and the mildew attack your tomato plants, the first thing to do is to know that fungi reproduce by spurs and once installed it will be difficult to eradicate them.
Somes: tips to prevent mushrooms in tomatoes
- Have an account of the Plantation Framework for each tomato variety: it is necessary that they are not very
- close together so as not to easily propagate the mushrooms.
- Eliminate days to ensure the indoor air of the tomato forest.
- De la misma manera, eliminate hojas viejas or infirmas.
- No mojes las hojas al watering
- Most common treatments against tomato mushrooms:
Copper sulphate: it can be applied sulphating on the tomatoes when they are small, in such a way that when they grow the viejas hojas viejas will be protected Azufre: to add sulfur to the octopus on the new days as it grows as a preventive measure
Black spot in the culo de los Tomates: Apical podredumbre
Do you have black or brown spots on the eye of your tomatoes? Well, it’s about apical rot or apical necrosis and it’s not another thing that lacks calcium.
Tomato varieties most prone to black mach
The most demanding tomato varieties in terms of nutrients are more likely to appear at the apical rottenness of the tomatoes. These varieties can be the most productive (Tomato pear), with very vigorous growth or with large fruits (Pink Tomato). Treatments for Lack of Calcium in Tomatoes There are many treatments to add calcium to tomatoes once apical necrosis is detected. The humus of lombriz is one of the best fertilizers, it provides many nutrients and it is essential to pay with it during the growth of the plants of our garden. You can find it liquid or solid in bags. If the lack of calcium is acute, it can be cut short and you need to pay several consecutive times.
the shell of the eggs is pure calcium, when it decomposes, it releases the calcium in the land even though this process can be slow and it is better to do it before finding calcium deficiencies. The milk contains calcium, if we dilute a vase of milk for every 2 liters of water we can water it and then we will add calcium to the plants. An excellent option is to water with diatomaceous earth as it has a 15% calcium content. Diluting a spoonful of water in just one liter of water would be enough to add a large amount of calcium to the soil.
Red spider and white fly
In general, the plagas of the tomato are the same shape. Insects such as the red spider, white fly, thrips, miner, tomato pollinate or tomato tuta carry out different damages caused by their bites or by devouring them, causing wounds that are the source of diseases.
The tomato pollina and the tuta (green maggot) can be easily treated with the manual elimination of insects or by applying Bacillus thurgensis. The white fly and the red spider are more difficult, but applying diatomaceous earth with neem oil every 10 days will be quite effective. It is not bad to always have chromatic trampas for pest control.
Tomato tuta or mining tomato
La Tuta Absoluta, it is a lepidopteran, a nocturnal pollina, a la which comes bien llamar absolute, because the fact that absolutes are the damages that produce in the plant, especially in the larval stage, when it is a small oruga of color crema with dark head and a black band, which changes its color to green and subtly pink. At the time that the sale of the solitary huevo, normally deposited in the today, explores the surface in search of the best place to penetrate today and start excavating the gallery, which is why it is also known as a tomato miner
However, its voracity does not stop here, as it also attacks the stalk, on all the apex shoots. When it ends with the sprouts, the growth of the plant is stopped, blocking its biological rhythms such as the formation of flowers and fruits.
Ecological treatment tuta del tomato
The treatment of the tuta is complicated as it is resistant to a large number of pesticides, but above all, a large part of its cycle takes place within the plant, it is difficult for the usual pesticides to reach it. For this reason, techniques based on both propagation control and prevention are necessary:
- Plant maintenance in perfect condition. The appearance of the majority of plagues is due to a weakening of
- the plant. Uprooting and destroying the affected plants or branches.
- Rotate the crops. If the crops are repeated in exactly the same area, we will be promoting it and we will be
- ensuring the edible with each new generation.
- Regularly observe the peaks of development, as they are the most important points of the plant and where the most damage can be done.
- Apply as a biological control with Bacillus thuringensis, a preparation based on the toxin produced by this
- genus of bacteria, capable of immobilizing the digestive system of the oruga. It is more effective in the first
- phases of the egg, when they are colored cream, applied on the bottom of the floor every quince days.
- Employ the natural enemies of the tuta in our favor. The míridos, are some insects of the family of los
- chinches, that we can attract to our garden if we count with plants with cobijo as las olivardas (Dittrichia viscosa).
types of tomatoes
The tomato plant is very easy to grow in an urban garden, in the open air, in a garden or in a balcony. In addition to this, there is a wide variety of types of tomatoes such as hybrid, early, late or giant tomatoes. This place expands the possibilities to fully enjoy tomato cultivation at home.